Library of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation



Several monographs ­ analytical or descriptive ­ of the Labour and Socialist International (1923-1940) and the Socialist International (1951-) in different languages exist. Also international co-operation between two or more parties has been analysed, and in this way central aspects of social-democratic/socialist internationalism have been highlighted. However, the smaller Internationals have only, at best, been treated in organisational histories published by and for the organisations themselves. All in all, neither the large nor the small Internationals have been analysed as they saw themselves through their publications or from the point of view of their efforts as seen from the outside. Some of these Internationals have been almost forgotten or are only known by a few, highly specialized, scholars. E.g. the Socialist Union of Central-Eastern Europe (SUCEE) has been forgotten since 1990, the International Federation of the Socialist and Democratic Press (IFSDP) probably does not exist any more, the Asian Socialist Conference played a role in the 1950ies, but who has ever heard of the Interafrican Socialist or can place it in time? But all these organisations have or had quite a role to play. If their efforts were to be analysed and understood, the most important material – the publications of these organisations – had to be located. The material probably existed, but where, in which archives and libraries?

This bibliography aims to register all publications of the various Social-Democratic and Socialist Internationals in the period from 1914 to 2000, whether they are printed or, as in some cases, mimeographed. The criterion for inclusion is whether the publications were intended to be used also outside the organisation, that is all material intended for use only internally in the different Internationals has been excluded. For the same reason publications published by the secretaries or presidents of the Internationals, e.g. Camille Huysmans, Friedrich Adler, Albert Carthy and others, more or less on behalf of the Internationals have been included.

The reason for setting the starting point in 1914 is that in his bibliography on the Second International, Georges Haupt made the planned Congress of the International in Vienna August 1914 the last one to be included[1]. Although this bibliography begins in 1914, the activities of the Women's International and the Youth International during the First World War have not been included ­ the split in the Labour movement, which became apparent on 4 August, 1914, left these organisations outside the Social-Democratic sphere. They must in the main be considered part of the left wing which in 1919 established itself as the Communist International. The bibliography on the Communist International by Vilem Kahan, of which only vol. 1 has as yet been published, begins in 1919, but may include the material of these Internationals in the forthcoming volumes[2]. The different Fourth Internationals ­ of which the various Trotskyist international organisations partly have been covered by Petra and Wolfgang Lubitz[3] ­ also falls outside the scope of the present bibliography.

Even if some of these Internationals were founded before 1914, e.g. the Labour Sports International (1913-) and the International Friends of Nature (1895-), only material published in 1914 or later has been included. It has not been possible to locate material from the International Association of Socialist Lawyers, which probably existed between 1928 and 1940 [this International is listed in this online version of the bibliography, its second congress is mentioned in the publication "Vierter Kongress der Sozialistischen Arbeiter-Internationale. Wien, 25. Juli bis 1. August 1931. Berichte und Verhandlungen"] and the International League of Religious Socialists; furthermore the Secretary of the League failed to react to several letters sent to it. An International Federation of Workers' Travel Association has been in existence during the 1950ies and 1960ies[4], but no published material has been found. Several international conferences of organisations concerned with Social Tourism were held in the 1950ies and 1960ies and a Bureau International du Tourisme Social was founded in 1963 on the "Fourth International Congress on Social Tourism". This Bureau published the periodical "bits information", but it has not been possible to determine if it was an International according to the criteria used for this bibliography ­ as yet no printed material from this organisation has been found although Conference reports were published. In 1954 an international conference on workers cinemas and films produced by social-democratic organisations and Trade Unions was held in Hamburg[5]. According to the produced report it seems that the intention was to develop this co-operation, but no further traces have been found, nor has it been possible to document a further reference to hundreds of films registered at the time. Another cultural organisation was a bureau of publishing houses of the Labour movement, the International Literary Agency, which actually existed for several years and published a periodical for some years.

The publications by the Asian Socialist Conference and the Socialist Interafrican are included, as are the publications of the SI Fraternal and Associated organisations with two exceptions, and the various European Social Democratic bodies connected with European unification process, unlike other regional bodies, such as the Internationale der Bodensee-Staaten, which was in existence during the 1920ies, and the co-operation between the Social-Democratic parties and Trade Unions in the North-European countries (since 1886). The Internationale Proletarischer Freidenker, the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, SAT, the Internationale des Organisations Culturelles Ouvrières, IDOCO have not been included in the bibliography as, for various reasons, they were not part of the social-democratic world, although many of the members and officers were. Two of the organisations associated to the Socialist International, viz. the World Labour Zionist Federation and the Jewish Labour Bund are not included as they were not considered to be Internationals but as organisations with chapters in various countries. The same goes for the Naturfreunde, which was a Weltverein until in 1950 it constituted itself as an International; accordingly it has only has been included after 1950.

Publications of 39 Internationals are listed in this bibliography, out of which 12 are still publishing material today. The basis for the listings is the collections of some of the larger libraries in the International Association of Labour History Institutions (IALHI). Subsequently, a series of libraries have been contacted, and they have supplied additional material. The most recent reports have not provided a great deal of new information, and from this we think we can conclude that although it still is possible to locate some new titles, most of the published material has been located, however, with two exceptions: 1) many of the mimeographed periodicals and 2) the publications of the Party of European Socialists (PES). But it seems probable that the publications of some of the politically more important Internationals have been located and registered in full, especially the material dating from the period between the two World Wars. At least this bibliography provides the fullest compilation of the various publications of the Internationals and so will facilitate future research.

All printed publications, and in some cases also mimeographed material, have been registered. Those mentioned by various sources, but not actually seen, are indicated by an * [not in the online version of the bibliography; here these titles are indicated by the fact that locations are missing] ­ many of them are taken from Andrea Panacciones bibliography[6]. Several periodicals have only been found in incomplete sets in different libraries; it is to be hoped that complete series can be reconstituted and preserved in some way. Periodicals have been registered at the end of each "chapter" [in this online version different sortings are possible, e.g. alphabetical or chronoligical] . Reports, protocols, etc., have not been included among the periodicals, but in general are registered individually in the bibliography. Based on the findings of this bibliography, some microfilms have already been produced by the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung in Bonn, and are available at the Mikrofilm-Archiv der deutschsprachigen Presse[7].This has been made possible by a grant from the Erich-Brost-Stiftung, and it is the intention to produce even more microfilms[8]. The Erich-Brost-Stiftung also supports the publication of this bibliography.

If nothing else is stated, all languages used by the Internationals themselves are included in the registration, but not material from the congresses, for instance, published by the Danish or Dutch Social Democratic parties; these were not materials published by or on behalf of the Labour and Socialist International. An exceptions has been made for the Party of European Socialists (PES), its predecessors and affiliated bodies. The PES-organisations have published their material in up to 12 languages, so it was decided only to register the English-language editions, but to indicate in which other languages these publications were published. Unfortunately the PES publications have only been preserved in some few libraries, and only in incomplete sets. For this reason it has not been possible to mention all the various language-editions, and quite a lot of the publications have only been found in languages other than English. Finding and collecting this material and making it available for research purposes is a task for the PES and the European IALHI-institutes. Hopefully this will be possible in the coming years as members of the various parties hand over their collections to the archives.

The entries are in chronological order, and they are given in alphabetical order for every year [not in the online version of the bibliography, you may choose between alphabetical or chronological sorting]. In some cases it has been impossible to establish the year of publication, and whenever this is the case the titles have entered at the beginning of the "chapter". The List of abbreviations and the List of the libraries in which this material can be found should be a help in locating material ­ the last line of each entry indicates, in abbreviation, in which library the publication can be found. Even if most of the publications can be found in the IISG, quite a lot only exist in other libraries. Addresses may change, but can probably be found on the internet via the IALHI website []. As the participating institutions have, for various reasons, organised their collections in different ways, quite often it is possible to find more material in not-catalogued archival collections ­ users are reminded to ask for this possibility in the institutions.

In the short notes on the history of the various Internationals it has also been indicated where archival material, as far as has been ascertained, can be found. But possibly other institutions also hold material of interest.

In an annex, various publications addressed to the International and its bodies are registered, but these have only been registered if and when they were found during the search for the real objects. It is possible that there are more of these publications, no thorough search has been instituted, but since they must be considered to be useful for researchers/scholars, they have been included.

The LSI established several Commissions in the period between the two World Wars, which published various reports and periodicals. These have been included in the bibliography under their year of publication. Reports by these Commissions included in the congress material have not been listed separately. The SI established the Socialist International Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean, SICLAC, which as far as could be ascertained published the periodical America Socialista for some years ­ but only four numbers seem to exist in Europe, and in three different libraries at that. The Social Democratic Group of the Latin American Parliament is a fairly new associated organisation to the SI and if the group has published anything it has not found its way to any of the participating libraries. This is also the case for the several other SI Committees, e.g. the SI Committee on Local Authorities, the Africa Committee etc. ­ see e.g. Socialist Affairs, vol. 49 no.1. p. 37-48.

In January 1993 the European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity was founded on the initiative of the Western European Social Democratic parties to support the transformation and democratisation processes in Central and Eastern Europe and as a platform for co-operation with social democratic personalities and parties in the region. The Forum co-operates closely with the Socialist International, the Party of European Socialists and other social democratic Internationals and is a part of the international social democratic network.

The Forum publishes Country Updates on the countries in the region with difficult obtainable background material, a Newsletter/Calendar (no. 26/December 2000) and Annual Reports. The Forum intends to develop its coverage to include the countries of the Confederation of Independent States[9].

Notes are written in italics and indicate e.g. that there is additional material or that particular pieces of information has not been found. The items have been registered as the different libraries have reported them ­ and as there are different libraries and their registrations sometimes go back a long time, differences in the entries occur.

Reprints and microfilms are indicated wherever they have been found. With regard to the LSI-periodical "International Information" and its supplements several checks have been conducted between the three editions in English, French and German. No great textual differences have been discovered between the three editions, even though sometimes a-numbers have been used (11a etc). The dates given on the three editions sometimes differ, and the texts may be in a different sequence, but as far as the checks have revealed, the contents are the same over a period. There are fewer pages in the English edition as English texts take up less space than both French and German. Some numbers - especially in "Documents and Discussions" - use the original language in all three editions. A microfilm of the English and German editions has been produced based on the holdings of the IISG.

The archives of the Labour Party ­ now in the National Museum of Labour History in Manchester (Labour History Archive & Study Centre) ­ have been much used in the historiography on the LSI and SI as the Labour Party played a prominent role after both World Wars in re-establishing the International. Richard Storey has made an inventory of the holdings[10], although the holdings of the Labour History Archive & Study Centre now are more extensive than they were in 1973, altogether there are 42 boxes of material. The archives of the LSI in the IISG have been registered, and an inventory has been published[11]. An early overview of the publications of the LSI and a very valuable chronological list of articles on the LSI in the magazines of the contemporary Labour movement, including some brochures on the same theme, have been published by Andrea Panaccione in the already mentioned bibliography.

The co-operative effort of the IALHI institutions has made this bibliography possible, but a number of non-members have also contributed. It has required an imaginative effort to find this material and locate it. As will be seen, the material is not completely present in any library although some have more than others. It will also be seen that the various collections are more complete for some years and for some organisations than for others. It is astonishing that the years after 1960 show a poorer percentage of material found than the first 20 years from 1913-1933 ­ or so we must presume. Only the smaller Internationals, who had their strongholds in Germany, and who accordingly lost the vast majority of their members in 1933 and in the following years lost even more of them through the takeover of Austria by the Austro-Fascists in 1934, and the occupation of the "Sudetenland" in 1938 by the Nazis show a lower percentage. It is highly deplorable that these publications were not collected by the Labour history institutions or handed in by the organisations. Because of these omissions, a lot of material has been lost. The bibliography is the very first step to find out what was published, and where access can be had to these publications. The IALHI should make it a task to try to find and make available more of the missing material.

The IALHI is aware of the fact that this bibliography is only the first step in locating and re-finding the publications of the Internationals. To facilitate this process, IALHI has decided to publish this bibliography knowing that it is incomplete. But we believe it will be easier to find more by means of a printed version. Only later do we intend to produce a database which can be consulted on the Internet. This next step will be handled by the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung which will make this database available in about two years time ­ hopefully it will be more complete in comparison with the present version. IALHI welcomes every help it can get, and we ask anybody with knowledge of more publications to contact the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bibliothek[12] ­ the URL address will be: In connection with the Microfilm-Project conducted by the FES, it is important that the FES be notified even of single, isolated numbers of the periodicals listed ­ and, of course, also of new items. Electronic Press-services etc published by the existing Internationals are already collected by the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and will be available sometime during 2001 via the homepage of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

The bibliography has been compiled by: Gerd Callesen (ABA), Alberto Castelli (FF), Martin Grass (ARAB), Urs Kaelin (SSA), Andrew A. Lee (TAM), Janina Nowak–Spicha (SHC), Co Seegers (IISG), Liesbeth van der Sluijs (IISG), Michel Vermote (AMSAB), Franck Veyron (BDIC) and Rüdiger Zimmermann (FES).

Others have shown themselves most helpful and we wish to thank them: Stephen Bird, Erik Boel, Vincent Bulteau, Louise Fluger Callesen, Steen Christensen, Christine Coates, Brigit Collins, Andrej W. Doronin, Reinhold Dumser, Maurice Duytschaever, Heinrich Eppe, Helga Farukuoye, Lena Fluger, Rosa Gallego, John Hamilton, Petteri Huurre, Silvia Hruska, Barbara Kontny, Odette Lambert, Luc Lievyns, Ulrich Lins, Karin Loi, Klaus-Peter Lorenz, Rodolfo Losada, Jan Mehlum, Jørgen Møller, Vagn Oluf Nielsen, Frida Lopez Novella, Manfred Pils, Angela Rinschen, Huub Sanders, Kathrin Schick, Pau Solanilla, Julie Somerville, Katrin Stiller, Karl Stubenvoll, Jack Taylor, Bendt Thuesen, Bernard Tuyttens, Gregor Vogt, Ludivine Weech, and Jochen Zimmer. The secretariat of the Socialist International has also been most helpful.

The bibliography includes material up to and including December 2000 at which time work on the bibliography was completed.

Considerations on the Development, Function and Role of Social-Democratic Internationalism

In continuation of the migrations of mediaeval journeymen, the 19th century saw considerable migratory activities on the part of European workers. Immediately prior to the outbreak of the revolutions in Europe in 1848, France alone had a foreign population of 850,000 people, mainly skilled workers and artisans, if it is indeed possible to distinguish between the two groups. A large proportion of these migrant workers consisted of German journeymen, who went to Switzerland, London, and especially Paris[13]. In the two metropolises and in several Swiss towns there was a sufficiently high number of foreigners for them to establish viable associations of radically thinking workers, partly on a national basis, partly as cross-national associations, such as, for examples, "The Fraternal Democrats" in London.

It is an established fact that this nascent radical Labour Movement gave rise to concern among the ruling classes; attempts were made to restrict or even ban migration, and certainly to prevent the setting up of workers' organizations, for which reason they had to operate clandestinely during these years. A rich literature exists dealing with these associations, particularly the documentation and analyses of "Bund der Kommunisten", an organization that was of direct importance for the development of internationalism, must be emphasized[14].

More important than migrating journeymen is, of course, industrialization which slowly emerged from the middle of the century, and created the class for whom international organization was to be of decisive importance. The emerging working class took an interest in the International Working Men's Association to the extent that and for as long as it was capable of managing activities to prevent the importation of scabs, and could actively assist the workers engaged in industrial action. For quite some time, the IWA was able to do that[15]. This development was, to a certain extent, halted by the dissolution of the IWA after 1872. Endeavours to maintain international cooperation were continued from various quarters, and several congresses were, in fact, held but no new International saw the light of day until the newly formed labour parties and trade unions met at the Paris Congress in 1889[16].

The theoretical position developed at the 1866 congress of the IWA determined the Marxist stance to the role of trade unions in the overall Labour Movement for a long time to come ­ as a matter of fact, this resolution has had a role to play until the present times. It was only during the years immediately before the turn of the millennium that the ties between the trade unions and the political components of the Labour Movement were decisively weakened even in countries where Marxism had not, to be sure, played a prominent role, but where it had had an ongoing impact since the end of the 19th century, without the functionaries of the Labour Movement having been particularly aware of this impact.

However, international experience was to have implications for the development: as a result of this comprehensive worker migration, the members of the working class had an unarticulated understanding of the nature of capitalism in some of those respects that directly affected workers: they had themselves experienced that contradictions between work and capital existed throughout the industrialized world, that, universally, attempts were made to keep working hours long and wages low, that state and capital cooperated towards these ends, in short, that conditions for working people were more or less identical no matter what country they found themselves in. This basis of experience was crucial and impacted on the acceptance of the general Marxist theory in wide working-class circles because Marx and Engels were able to formulate the international experience of workers into a coherent theory acceptable to these groups; this, in turn, provided a basis for a more or less profound acceptance and appropriation of the other components of the theory in the working class. However, during this time, i.e., the 1880s and 1890s, industrial workers accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total population, with the exception of countries like Great Britain and Belgium.

With the growth of the movement over the following decades leading up to the First World War, the need for coordinating trade union as well as political activities also grew. In 1886, the first regional workers' congress took place in Gothenburg, Sweden, one result of which was formalized cooperation between the three Scandinavian Labour Movements ­ cooperation which in some cases led to the establishment of pan-Scandinavian trade unions, and in other cases to the transfer of considerable funds in connection with industrial action. One such example was a four-months long conflict in Denmark in 1898, another the Swedish large-scale strike in 1909, and many others. From the late 1880s, International Trade Secretariats[17] saw the light of day; the political International developed during the years after 1900, and from 1901, national federations began developing mutual cooperation which, a short time before 1914, was institutionalized in the International Federation of Trade Unions. However, at the same time, such institutionalisation led to a weakening of spontaneous internationalism; this was almost inevitable in light of the fact that the Labour Movement had become a mass movement which, in order to be able to handle its tasks, had found it necessary to employ a number of functionaries, working for the movement in various capacities such as editors of dailies and the many different periodicals, as chairmen of trade union organizations, as statisticians, etc. The phenomenon is well known and well described by various sources, often it has been assessed in highly contradictory terms since, around 1910, Robert Michels evolved his initial analysis of the oligarchic trends of the Labour Movement[18]. The internationalist position did not die, but it did become less vigorous, its role was weakened as a result of its institutionalisation.

The First World War also constituted the end of an epoch in the development of the Labour Movement; however, internationalism continued to play an important part. This became particularly clear in the support given by French and British workers to the revolution taking place in Russia. By various forms of action they prevented French and British troops from intervening in the civil war on the side of czarist and "white" forces.

In 1919 an attempt was made to revive the Internationals: the III International was, in fact, established in Moscow and existed until 1943 despite the fact that Stalin had apparently judged it as being misplaced at a time when it was more important that national Communist parties develop an independent policy and not act as sections of the International[19].

Similarly, the Social-Democratic parties attempted to reestablish cooperation, but it took from 1919 to 1923 before the different parties were able to reach so much agreement that a new International was formed: The Labour and Socialist International (LSI), with institutionalized cooperation with the Socialist Youth International (SYI) and the International Federation of Trade Unions. The SYI, in particular demonstrated an positive will to cooperate across frontiers and to try to develop shared methods, for instance, for bringing up working class children[20], and to develop a new workers' culture, an attempt which characterized organized working-class youth during the interwar years ­ something for many years to come which left its mark on those affected, as it alreday had done on the participants of the socialist youth organizations from before World War I.

A number of parties and organizations remained outside these Internationals. They tried to advocate a route to Socialism different from that chosen by the two larger Internationals. They never developed into mass organizations, nor were they ever capable of developing a common theoretical base[21].

Under the Social-Democratic umbrella, the interwar years saw the birth of a series of new international associations, and their publications are among those registered in the present bibliography. To some extent, these Internationals shared their foundations with those which arose again following the Second World War: they reflected the fact that in and around the Social-Democratic Labour Movement various occupational and cultural activities arose contributing towards disseminating the ideology of this movement to broader layers of the public, and through them attempts were made to integrate ever larger groups into the activities of the movement. Apart from the Workers' Sports International they were not large-scale organizations, and they developed virtually no bureaucratic structures, but survived on the basis of efforts made by some few activists.

During the interwar years it is, however, characteristic of Social-Democratic workers' internationalism that it could exercise no organizational sanctions against its affiliates. It was, in any case, one of the major differences between the LSI and the centralist Comintern that the latter could, in fact, impose sanctions on its affiliates. Organizational internationalism ­ including the LSI and the SYI ­ was based on consensus. Increasingly, over the interwar years, national Social-Democratic parties, who were in government office, rejected any possibility of providing the International with anything but powers of moral persuasion vis-à-vis the actually doable policies as perceived by the government parties in the individual countries. The development resulted in or was a consequence of political discord between the parties: in order to remain in "power", the government parties felt it necessary to take account of other considerations than those acceptable to the other parties in the International. The problem of coupling the struggle for power in the parties' own countries to fundamental solidarity with and assistance to the movements of other countries was not solved during the interwar years, and the scope for action of the International gradually shrank, and in the autumn of 1939 it was, in fact, dissolved. Until that time, it had acted as an important forum for information and discussion.

As early as in the final phase of the Second World War, attempts were made anew to reestablish international cooperation between the Social-Democratic parties; the youth organizations reestablished their own International in 1946, and some of the other Internationals tried to resume cooperation as if nothing had happened.

Between May 1946 and March 1951, a total of 13 international conferences were held by Social-democratic parties developing positions on the different topical problems and matters of principle, thus preparing for the establishment of the Socialist International in 1951 in compliance with the wishes of most Social-Democratic parties. The SI saw itself as the successor of the I. International (IWA), which was clearly demonstrated at the SI's 9th congress in Brussels in 1964 on the centenary of the founding of the IWA. However, it is plain that the Social-Democratic parties, as distinct from the trade union Internationals, are united only by a more or less identical basic position in relation to international problems, by a common social-affairs stance, but in many topical or urgent problems they make up their own minds based on the perceived interest of their nation state ­ little or no attempt is made (any longer) to link national and international tasks into a common struggle. However, this basic common position often led to similar developments, as became clear from the amendments made to several of the parties programmes from the late 1950s and onwards. The parties did not only react simultaneously to changes in societal developments by evolving new theoretical positions, they also reacted simultaneously by modifying the structure of their information activities vis-à-vis the party members and lay officers. Similarly, several parties reacted more or less identically to the new political framework conditions of the 1970s by placing themselves "left of centre" in the political spectrum.

One factor playing a not unimportant role was the activities of the International Labour Organization. Significant functions that national trade union centres had previously had to carry out as part of their international tasks, were now carried out under the auspices of the ILO. Because of the tripartite structure of the ILO, international cooperation in the field of labour-market conditions changed its nature, and this weakened insights into working conditions abroad and the need for concrete international action.

Until the 1950s the special Social-Democratic ideology was strong enough for the parties to attempt new initiatives in the field of ­ especially cultural ­ cooperation. However, practical circumstances made it impossible to set up, for example, alternative Social-Democratic news dissemination in the at that time still not insignificant newspapers published by the Social-Democratic Labour Movement. The International Federation of the Socialist and Democratic Press held a number of conferences and published various periodicals to disseminate information of interest to the Labour press, but without a sufficient strength of impact to secure the activity over a protracted period.

It goes without saying that internationalism is not a constant factor whose nature is forever firmly fixed. Rather, it is an insight based on experience, an insight that might fade if it is no longer based on actual experience of the type originally made by migrating journeymen. Together with the various phases of capitalist development, internationalism also undergoes changes during which it can deteriorate into a purely notional position void of any practical implications. This does not mean that it will have lost all meaning in the working class, something which became clear during the interwar years vis-à-vis refugees from Fascism who were aided by other working-class and Labour organizations. One type of aid provided by the LSI was the establishment of the Matteotti Committee, and in spite of the prevailing high rates of unemployment in the 1930s, comprehensive xenophobia or racism did not afflict the working class. These phenomena were certainly not unknown in middle-class strata, but unlike what was to be the case in the 1980s and 1990s, they were not echoed in the working class.

Migration by journeymen and others was interrupted in Europe by the outbreak of the First World War and were, subsequently, hampered by frontiers being closed, by different types of labour-market regulation which have all prevented lively mobility across national and language borders. Regulations were, of course, determined by the cyclical needs of the labour market/capitalist system to which the working class is subject. At the same time, technological developments during the period under review have, at times, lead to concentration on national markets. In the 1970s, at least, an upswing in international solidarity activities could be observed, finding expression, for example, in connection with the reestablishment of Social-Democratic mass parties in Portugal and Spain, in the support given to the Sandinist movement in Nicaragua, in the support allocated to the liberation struggle in southern Africa and elsewhere. Social-Democratic organizations ­ including the Socialist International ­ played a decisive role in this connection[22].

Solidarity activities seem to have been replaced by activities more orientated by humanitarian considerations, but nevertheless there is still a fundamental position in the Labour Movement concerning the importance of internationalism. Whether the new European trends, including European Works Councils in multinational companies and the right to free movement of persons within the external frontiers of the European Union, will entail a new basis for internationalism, at least in the core groups of the Labour Movement remains to be seen. However, it is not certain by any means that the present-day Labour Movement will be capable of reacting politically and strategically adequately to the internationalization of capital and the fluctuations of world markets. The Internationals are there ­ can new life be breathed into them? But irrespective of whether and how they can be used, their development and publications constitute a store of significant experience, and this bibliography should constitute a tool in connection with the analysis of the historical manifestations of internationalism in the Labour Movement Internationals. Thus, it is hoped, it will contribute towards clarifying problem formulations in the current situation.

In addition to providing bibliographical information, the purpose of the bibliography is to contribute towards improving the conditions for research into Labour Movement history. In the present situation scholarly and theoretical efforts constitute an important factor in the development of a framework for continuing emancipatory activities of the Movement.

Gerd Callesen, The Labour Movement Library and Archive
Copenhagen, February 2001

The International Association of Labour History Institutions (IALHI) organizes archives, libraries, document centres, museums and research institutions specializing in the history and theory of the labour movement internationally. IALHI was founded in 1970 by the Arbeterrörelsens Arkiv (Stockholm), the Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (Düsseldorf), the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Bonn), the International Institute of Social History (Amsterdam), the Labour Party (London), the Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv (Zürich) and the Trade Union Congress (London), among others.

Today IALHI has approximately 100 scholarly institutions and organizations in the form of e.g. archives, libraries, museums from all over the world as its members. They concentrate on conserving and studying the traditions and history of the labour movement. The most important institutions in the field of labour movement history are members of IALHI; among them are: Annual conferences provide an occasion for meeting, discussion, exchange of experience, multilateral cooperation etc. Conferences were held in London (1970), Stockholm (1971), Zürich (1972), Bonn (1973), Oslo (1974), Amsterdam (1975), Milan (1976), Vienna (1977), Paris (1978), Bochum (1979), Stockholm (1980), Barcelona (1981), London (1982), Florence (1983), Madrid (1984), Brussels/Liège/Ghent (1985), Paris (1986), Bonn (1987), Zürich (1988), Amsterdam (1989), Helsinki (1990), Linz (1991), Copenhagen (1992), Prague (1993), Manchester (1994), Moscow (1995), Athens (1996), Silver Spring, MD (1997), Milan (1998), Amsterdam (1999) and Oslo (2000). The next conference is to take place in Tampere in 2001. Later conferences will be held in Stockholm (2002), Dublin (2003), Paris (2004), and Ghent (2005).

The objectives of the Association are
  1. to foster closer co-operation between the institutions;
  2. to interlend wherever possible;
  3. to encourage the interchange of publications and duplicates;
  4. to initiate and sponsor publications such as bibliographies, holding lists and surveys falling within the field of interest of the Association.

Contact Address:
Karin Englund
Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek (ARAB)
Upplandsgatan 4, Box 1124
S-11181 Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-4123901
Fax: 46-8-7919312


1. Georges Haupt: La deuxieme Internationale 1889-1914. Etude critique des sources. Essai bibliographique, Paris 1964.

2. Vilem Kahan: Bibliography of the Communist International (1919-1979), vol. 1, Leiden 1990.

3. Petra and Wolfgang Lubitz: Trotsky bibliography. An international classified list of publications about Leon Trotsky and trotskyism 1905-1988, München 1999; Trotsky serial bibliography 1927-1991. With locations and indices, München 1993.

4. Bits information, vol. 1, no. 1, October 1963 p. 8. Several numbers of this mimeographed periodical from the years 1963 to 1970 are held by the AMSAB, Gent.

5. Protokoll über die 1.Internationalen Arbeiter-Film-Festspiele vom 15. bis 18. September 1954 in Hamburg-Nienstedten, Düsseldorf n.d., 54 p.

6. Andrea Panaccione: Fonti per la storia della Internazionale Operaia Socialista 1923-1940, in: Annali. Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, vol. 1983/84 (L'Internazionale Operaia e Socialista tra le due guerre, a cura di Enzo Collotti), p. 3-43.

7. Adress: Mikrofilmarchiv der deutschsprachigen Presse c/o Institut für Zeitungsforschung der Stadt Dortmund, Königswall 18, D-44122 Dortmund. The 10th Catalogue with holdings was published in 1998.

8. Erich Brost was a social-democratic journalist and publisher, originally in Danzig (Gdansk) later in West-Germany.


10. Richard A. Storey: Labour Party archives: Labour and Socialist International, listed by R.A. Storey and T.W.M. Jaine, Historical Manuscripts Commission, London 1973.

11. J.R. van der Leeuw et al: Inventar des Archivs der Sozialistischen Arbeiter-Internationale (SAI) 1923-1940 ­ IISG-Working Papers, 22 ­, Stichting beheer IISG, Amsterdam 1993.

12. Godesberger Allee 149, D-53170 Bonn, Tel. +49 228 883 550; fax +49 228 883 626; e-mail:

13. See Jacques Grandjonc: Die deutsche Binnenwanderung in Europa 1830 bis 1848, in: Otto Busch et al. (eds): Die frühsozialistischen Bünde in der Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung. Vom "Bund der Gerechten" zum "Bund der Kommunisten" 1836-1847. Ein Tagungsbericht, Berlin 1975 p. 3-20.

14. Der Bund der Kommunisten. Dokumente und Materialien, vol. 1-3, Berlin 1970-1984 and Martin Hundt: Geschichte des Bundes der Kommunisten 1836-1852 ­ Philosophie und Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Studien und Quellen 3 ­ Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M, 1993.

15. Ursula Hermann: Der Kampf von Karl Marx um eine revolutionäre Gewerkschaftspolitik 1864 bis 1868, Berlin 1868.

16. A brief survey of the various congresses is provided by Arnold Reisberg: Von der I. zur II. Internationale. Die Durchsetzung des Marxismus im Kampf um die Wiederherstellung der Arbeiterinternationale, Berlin 1980, pp. 98-138. For the first years of the new International, see Markus Bürgi: Die Anfänge der Zweiten Internationale. Positionen und Auseinandersetzungen 1889-1893 ­ Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, 16 ­, Frankfurt 1996; for the refoundation of the Labour and Socialist International, see Robert Sigel: Die Geschichte der Zweiten Internationale 1918-1923 ­ Quellen und Studien zur Sozialgeschichte, 7 ­, Frankfurt/M. 1985.

17. Compare for instance Charles Hobson: International Metalworkers' Federation, Birmingham 1915, and more recently a number of books, e.g., Hartmut Simon: Die Internationale Transport Arbeiter-Föderation, Essen 1993, Bob Reinalda, (ed): The International Transportworkers Federation 1914-1945. The Edo Fimmen Era, Amsterdam 1997, Karl Georg Herrmann: Die Geschichte des Internationalen Bergarbeiterverbandes 1890-1939, Frankfurt 1994, and other studies.

18. Robert Michels: Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie. Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens, Leipzig 1910 (many subsequent editions and translations). On Michels, see: Joachim Hetscher: Robert Michels: Die Herausbildung der modernen politischen Soziologie im Kontext von Herausforderung und Defizit der Arbeiterbewegung, Bonn 1983.

19. This appears from Georgi Dimitroff: Tagebücher 1933-43, Berlin 2000, Note dated 20 April 1941.

20. Cif., for instance John Bertelsen: En proletar slår ikke sine børn. Otto Felix Kanitz' pædagogik i "Det Røde Wien" 1918-1934, [A proletarian does not beat his children. Otto Felix Kanitz' Educational Ideas in "Red Vienna"] ph.d. thesis, The Royal Danish School of Educational Studies, Copenhagen 2001; Ferdinand Brandecker: Kurt Löwenstein und die Grundlagen einer sozialistischen Pädagogik in der Zwischenkriegszeit, in: Annali. Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, vol. 1983/84 (L'Internazionale Operaia e Socialista tra le due guerre, a cura di Enzo Collotti).

21. Cif., Peretz Merchav: Linkssozialismus in Europa zwischen den Weltkriegen, Vienna 1979, and Willy Buschak: Das Londoner Büro. Europäische Linkssozialisten in der Zwischenkriegszeit, Amsterdam 1985.

22. Cif. for the activities of Danish Social-Democratic organizations in this field the survey in Claus Larsen-Jensen (ed): Vi forandrer verden ... ­ dansk arbejderbevægelse og internationaliseringen [We Change the World ­ the Danish Labour Movement and Internationalization] Copenhagen, 1999.

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