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Our correspondent, who sends us a report on the Synarchist Movement, of which we give a summary below, prefaces it with the remark that "it may seem rather far-fetched, but it comes from reliable sources."
The "Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire" (M.S.E.) was founded in 1922 "out of the need to define through thought, experience and action the meaning of the present world revolution". It is interesting to note in this connection that Italian Fascism was founded in Milan on March 23rd 1919, and that in October 1922 the fascists marched on Rome.
One of the sections of the document issued by the M.S.E. contains a violent attack on French parliamentarism, "this political pot-pourri which resulted from the Constitution of 1875."
The term "synarchy" - the opposite of anarchy - was first used and defined about 1860 by St. IVES D'ALVEYDRE in his book "Mission des Juifs". In his book D'ALVEYDRE declares that the Synarchist form of government is of divine origin, springing from the revelations of Moses. He later held the highest office in the Martinist order, a secret organisation, on which with regard to secrecy the M.S.E. has been modelled. The M.S.E., however, in taking over this name, has but borrowed an ancient cloak to clothe a new movement which has quite different aims and aspirations.
M. Jean Coutrot
COUTROT was one of the leading members of the M.S.E. He was very active for ten years and founded at least nine societies with very varied "aims and objects". One thing they had in common - a secret purpose disguised by an innocuous name. All of these groups, on whose committees the same persons appeared, tried to attract intellectuals, to study them in order to allocate to them the right jobs, and from them to recruit by a very careful selection members for the M.S.E. In a word these groups served M. COUTROT as instruments for penetration and recruitment.
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In 1936 COUTROT gave up his work as industrialist. He gained influence over M. SPINASSE, Minister of Economics, which influence he used in placing members of the M.S.E. (M. BRANGER, HEKKING, etc.) inside the administration and he successfully countered all attempts by SPINASSE to introduce socialist measures.
COUTROT bore all the expenses of these groups, even to rent and general expenses, and refused to accept any financial support from the state. These annual expenses ran to a tune of something like 800,000 Frs. The question was often asked - whence comes the money? -, but never answered.
COUTROT expounded his ideology in his writings and speeches. He himself styled it as socialist, but anti-Marxist, anti-neosocialist, etc. It was in fact opposed to all socialist theories and his efforts were directed toward the disintegration and extermination of all constructive work for Socialism. This work of destruction he carried out in the interests of big business.
COUTROT's death, about May 15th, 1941, was surrounded with mystery. It was kept a secret and was not announced in the press. Eight days later followed the death of M. THEALET, his young secretary and collaborator. Various rumours attributed COUTROT's death to suicide, but nothing very definite is known. What is known is that early in May Marshall PÉTAIN received an important file containing photographs and original documents concerning the existence and activities of the M.S.E. It is also known that these fell into the hands of the Marshall through some indiscretion of COUTROT and his secretary, and that this indiscretion caused a violent controversy inside the M.S.E.
This recalls the death of the Russian economist NAVACHINE, on January 25th, 1937. NAVACHINE was a trusted adviser of M. SPINASSE, and was a genuine freemason and Martinist. He was therefore interested in the development and underground activities of this dissident group. There are reasons for suspecting that his death was not unconnected with his activities in counteracting the efforts of the M.S.E.
In France the leading elements of the M.S.E. seem to come mainly from:
b) certain representatives of Big Business, especially those belonging to the Comité des Houilleres (Committee of Colliery Owners), certain groups of oil magnates, certain societies for mechanical constructions and iron and steel production and certain societies for public works.
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Key positions held by M.S.E. members can be grouped in the following way (July 1941):
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Baudouin, Paul. Former Director of the Bank of Indochina. Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Vichy Government up to February 1941.
Belin, Rene. Secretary of State for Labour.
Borotra, Jean. Secretary for Physical Training and Sport since 1940.
Bouthillier, Yves. Minister for Finance in the Reynaud Cabinet in 1940, afterwards in the Vichy Government. Former Inspector of Taxes.
Deloncle, Eugene. One of the leading members of the movement, probably one of its founders. Leader of the Cagoulards until recently when he resigned from this position.
Filippi, Jean. Representative of the Ministry of Finance in the Occupied Zone.
Lehideux, François. Former general director of the Renault works (which were never bombed by the Germans), since 1941 Minister of Supply.
Pietri. Former Inspector of Taxes. French Ambassador in Spain in 1940/41.
Pucheu, Pierre. Secretary of State for Industrial Production since February 1941. At present special French envoy in Switzerland.
Weiller, Paul Louis. Aeroplane constructor, Very intimate friend of Deloncle. Interned in October 1940, released in May 1941.
The synarchist movement is an international movement, founded the day after the Treaty of Versailles was signed; it is financed and run by certain groups belonging to International High Finance.
It strives in all countries to overthrow existing parliamentary regimes which are considered as not being sufficiently concerned about the interests of High Finance and also as not sufficiently manageable because of the large number of people whose voluntary collaboration has to be secured.
It strives moreover, to substitute them by authoritarian regimes which are considered to be more docile and more manageable. Under such regimes all power would be concentrated in the hands of Big Business and
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in those representatives of High Finance who have been specially appointed to the different countries.
They envisage the achievement of their aim by means of a Political Constitution and a National Economy in each country on the following lines:
1.) Direct control of political power by the representatives of Big Business and High Finance in order to eliminate the parasitism of intermediaries.
2.) Maximum concentration in each industry in order to cut out all harmful competition.
3.) Absolute control over fixing of all prices of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products.
4.) The workers to be in such a position legally and socially that they will be unable to carry out any extremist activities, or even any kind of action by which they might improve their conditions.
We can describe the two main instruments of action in France as:
1.) The C.S.A.R. (Secret Committee for Revolutionary Action) or M.S.R. (Revolutionary Social Movement).
2.) The C.S.R. (Synarchist Revolutionary Convention) or M.S.E. (Synarchist Movement of the Empire).
The C.S.A.R. had failed in their attempts to seize power through the revolt in 1934 and in 1937, but in July 1940 they succeeded by exploiting the national disaster and the military defeat which they themselves had helped to bring about.
The M.S.E. with which we are concerned here, has prepared the way to power by constantly permeating the State administration, High Finance and Big Business with their own people. That was carried out in the first place by making use of personal connections, and later on, through the medium of the various organizations created by JEAN COUTROT.
In June 1940 one of the leaders of the M.S.E., M. BOUTHILLIER, was entrusted by Pétain with the Ministry of Finance; since that time the Members of the M.S.E. have been working for the following aims:
1.) To frustrate progressive tendencies manifested by the new government within the frame work of the "Revolution National".
2.) To undermine any effort which might result in weakening the position of certain international financial groups until they hold all the key positions in industry.
3.) To safeguard by every means and in all economic spheres the interests of all those who are connected with High Finance.
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4.) To frustrate all attempts to achieve an economic organisation of the Continent which would make Europe independent of American imports and economic influence.
The carrying out of this vast programme made it necessary for members of the M.S.E. to occupy all the posts of importance in the various ministries, and especially in the economic ministries, such as Finance, Public Works, Labour, Commerce. This was soon achieved by the famous Decree of July 17th 1940 which permits the recall of any official and his replacement by another person.
As soon as the members of the M.S.E. took office they started to carry out their plans:
Their first achievement was the decree issued by Rene Belin, and put into force on August 18th 1940, which is one of the pillars of the new French economic structure. It creates the "Comités d'Organisation et de Repartition" (Committees for Organisation and Distribution) and was drawn up according to the directives of BOUTHILLIER and BARNAUD (the latter has an important position in BELIN's ministry).
Thanks to this all-embracing organisation of industry and commerce a small section of bankers and industrialists were able to control all economic activities of the country and amass enormous profits.
The synarchist Group proceeded very quickly to eliminate those people from the State Councils whose activities they considered as too progressive or even dangerously revolutionary. Among them were:
a) Adrien Marquet, from the Ministry for Home Affairs, who was suspected of favouring a form of national-socialism which was too socialistic.
b) M. Alibert, considered a revolutionary in legal affairs (decree concerning limited companies).
c) Last but not least, Pierre Laval, suspected of having leanings towards a real national-socialist regime and an autarchy for Europe.
The instruction was given that "the lust for capitalist profits of the German industrialists" should be played upon and that financial agreements between French and German groups should be aimed at in order to unify: Oil and its substitutes, Artificial textiles and Cotton groups, Mines and Heavy Industry.
These groups, moved by their own interests should exert pressure upon their respective governments in favour of safeguarding American interests.
This plan is being carried out systematically. It appears that in the case of textiles and mines the negotiations proceeded favourably and that the German representatives have shown a willingness to come to terms.
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M. GILLET, of the group France-Bayonne, is said to have achieved excellent results in the negotiations between I.G. Farben, France-Bayonne and the American firm Dupont de Nemours. The negotiations took place in the Occupied Zone, in Lyon and in Basle; they were conducted between M. GILLET, directors of I.G. Farben and an American in high position.
Efforts are also under way to create a Compagnie Française, des Petroles which should unite all French oil companies and which should be under American influence.
The Mouvement Synarchist d'Empire, which was created in France in 1922 as a sister organisation of the C.S.A.R. and closely linked up with it, is nothing but the French Branch of an international organisation with very wide ramifications, organised and financed in all countries by certain elements of Big Business and High Finance.
In the international sphere its main has been to overthrow all democratic regimes and to put in their place governments which would be stronger and at the same time more subservient to the interests of Big Business. The key positions in all countries should be firmly held my members of the M.S.E., working internationally under the direction of a Big Bank whose function should be to coordinate the work in the different countries.
In this way the movement represents a stage in the fight of international capitalism against socialism. Through it, financial imperialism attempts to subordinate the economic life of the different countries to a unified control exercised by certain groups of High Finance. Under the pretext of fighting Bolshevism these groups seek to gain a monopoly in the spheres of industry, commerce and finance.
In finance the M.S.E. has systematically permeated Big Industry, Banking, and the State Administration since 1922. At the same time the C.S.A.R. has energetically carried out the recruitment of members within the high ranks of the French Army.
In 1937 the members of the M.S.E. were already very strong in numbers within the ranks and also at the head of important government departments. The C.S.A., however, failed in its bid for power in 1937 (Arrest of Deloncle on December 25th, 1937). In Summer 1940 the M.S.E. at last achieved its objective. The victory of the German Army, facilitated by the activities of a number of French military leaders who had a peculiar conception of patriotism (a conception which two months later was to become the official one) gave them the opportunity for which they had been waiting.
On July 15th, 1940 nearly all the members of the M.S.E. were firmly entrenched in the key positions in the State. All that was left to do was to put Parliament into cold storage and to reward those high officers who had known how to use a national catastrophe in the service of a reactionary
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revolution. The full exploitation of their power followed with amazing rapidity which proves the existence of a carefully thought out plan.
Hardly one month after the seizure of power (August 18 th 1940) a decree was issued which created the "Comités d'Organisation et de Repartition", a striking construction which concentrates the whole of French Industry in the hands of a few members of the M.S.E. Eleven months later a decree dealing with the reorganisation of the banking system placed the control over all banking activities in the hands of a few financiers belonging to the same group.
How easily they can exploit their power in the framework of the new structure of the State! The administration of the country had become a branch of the Banque Worms; the "Journal Officiel" is nothing but the organ of its Board of Directors, and the high officials of the State are nothing but the agents of this bank.
After one year has passed the deeper meaning of the "phoney war" of 1939-1940 has become quite clear: A disguised revolution, carried out under the cover of a military collapse precipitated by the treachery of certain influential circles whose object was to concentrate the economic life of the country in the hands of a small clique serving the interests of International High Finance. All this took place in France with the sanction of the Church which played an important role in this immense tragedy. This was due in part to the fanaticism of certain members of the High Clergy and the blindness of some others. But in any case the Church received a substantial share of the fruits of this whole business.
(W. G. Eichler)