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1 Data regarding presence of women in government was taken largely from the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women publication "Issues and Trends" (NCRFW and ADB), October 1995, pp. 33-43.
2 Carmencita T. Aguilar, "Women in Politics in the Philippines", Women in Politics, (Bangkok, UNESCO), 1990, pp. 132-168.
3 Socorro L. Reyes, "Strengthening the Linkage Between Women’s Groups and Women in Govenrment", LILA – Asia Pacific Women’s Studies Journal, No. 1, edited by Sr. Mary John Mananzan OSB, (Manila, Institute of Women’s Studies), 1992, pp. 71-721.
4 NCRFW, Filipino Women – Issues and Trends, p. 29.
5 Ibid, p. 31.
6 Fe Mangahas, ‘The Status of Filipino Women from Pre-Colonial Times to the Early American Period", Kamalayan: Feminist Writings in the Philippines, edited by Pennie S. Azarcon (Quezon City, PILIPINA), September 1987, pp. 16ff.
7 Ibid, p. 17.
8 Ibid.
9 Belinda A. Aquino, "Philippine Feminism in Historical Perspective", Women in Politics Worldwide, edited by Barbara J. Nelson and Najma Choudbury, p. 593.
10 Ibid, pp. 594-595.
11 Ibid.
12 Ibid, pp. 596-597.
13 Leonora Angeles, "Feminism and Nationalism: The Discourse on the Women Question and Politics of the Women’s Movement in the Philippines", Unpublished masteral thesis submitted to the University of the Philippines Political Science Department, September 1989.
14 Antoinette Raquiza, "Philippine Feminist Politics: Disunity in Diversity?", unpublished paper submitted to the University of the Philippine Third World Studies Center, 1996, p. 5.
15 Socorro L. Reyes, "Strengthening the Linkages …".
16 Antoinette Raquiza, "Philippine Feminist Politics …"; p. 6.
17 Rosa Linda P. Tidalgo, "The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Women’s Movement", Missing Women, edited by Noeleen Heyzer, (Kuala Lumpur, APDC), pp. 354-405.
18 Antoinette Raquiza, "Philippine Feminist Politics …", p. 6.
19 Ibid, p. 7.
20 President’s Report, Women in Nation-Building, April 1997.
21 DSWP Profile Sheet and Women’s Agenda, Official DSWP Publication, Vol III, No. 3, (Quezon City; DSWP) , July – November 1996.
22 Lakas ng Kababaihan, A Primer on the Women’s Provisions in the 1986 Philippine Consitution; The Gains and the Tasks Ahead, (Philippines: Lakas ng Kababaihan and NCRFW), December 1986.
23 Princess Nemenzo’s Foreward for Marilen Danguilan’s book, Making Choices in Good Faith (Quezon City: Woman-health), 1993.
24 PILIPINA Internal Papers.
25 PILIPINA Internal Papers.
26 Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act 7192: Women in Development and Nation-Building Act, Philippines, January 1993.
27 Bureau of Local Government Development, Participative Local Governance: A Primer.
28 Fe Liza Co, "Women and the Ballot", Philippine Graphic, 4 May 1992.
29 PILIPINA internal papers.
30 DIWATA Internal Papers.
31 Antonette Raquiza, "Philippine Feminist Politics …", p. 1.
32 Ibid, p. 9.
33 PILIPINA, "Women Gaining and Wielding Power", Isyung Pinay, Issue Paper No. 4, (Quezon City: PILIPINA).
34 Ibid.
35 PINAY organizational Report.
36 PILIPINA, Proceedings of the National Conference on Vote for Women’s Issues and Empowerment, conducted on April 3-5, 1995 at the Audio-Visual Room, Social Development Complex, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City.
37 Elizabeth Yang, "Why Women, What Politics", Proceedings of the First Asia-Pacific Congress of Women in Politics.
38 PILIPINA, Proceedings of the National Conference on Harnessing Women Power for the Tenth Congress and Beyond, conducted on July 12-14, 1995 at the Institute of Social Order, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City.
39 Carmel V. Abao, "Dynamics Among Political Blocs in Political Party Formation", unpublished paper submitted to the University of the Philippines Third World Studies Center, 1996.
40 ABANSE Briefing papers, 1997.
41 Rina Jimenez-David, "Abanse and the Women’s Party List", At-Large, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 12 August 1997).

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About the Authors

Carmel V. Abao

Carmel Abao is the Secretary General of the AKBAYAN! Citizen Action Party – a newly established progressive party that seeks to find genuine people’s participation in the traditional political system of the Philippines. After finishing business management major in legal management in 1987, she worked as an educator-organizer in the Workers Institute-Workers College and then became the education officer of the Lakas Manggagawa Labor Center. She has been the editor of three newsletters and has written articles on the labor movement, dynamics among political blocs in political party formation and is currently working in a joint research on Korean social movement. She is now working as a research associate in the development watch project of the Institute for Popular Democracy.

Elizabeth U. Yang

Elizabeth U. Yang is the national coordinator of the PILIPINA women’s movement and is currently the secretary of the ABANSE! Pinay – a women electoral party looking for seats in the first party list elections in the Philippines. She studied business management and has worked as coordinator of Center for Social Concern and Action (COSCA) as well as the executive director of the Social Development Index, an NGO aimed at orienting the professional sector towards social service. She served as secretariat staff in the Beijing NGO Forum and observed the 4th World Conference on Women. She has designed and implemented women courses especially on politics and leadership.

© Friedrich Ebert Stiftung | technical support | net edition fes-library | Oktober 2001

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