Convention concerning equal remunerations for men and women workers for work of equal value
The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation adopts this twenty-ninth day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-one the following Convention, which may be cited as the Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951:
For the purpose of this Convention-
(a) the term "remuneration" includes the ordinary, basic or minimum wage or salary and any additional emoluments whatsoever payable directly or indirectly, whether in cash or in kind, by the employer to the worker and arising out of the worker's employment;
(b) the term "equal remuneration for men and women workers for work of equal value" refers to rates of remuneration established without discrimination based on sex.
1. Each Member shall, by means appropriate to the methods in operation for determining rates of remuneration, promote and, in so far as is consistent with such methods, ensure the application to all workers of the principle of equal remuneration for men and women workers for work of equal value.
2. This principle may be applied by means of-
(a) national laws or regulations;
(b) legally established or recognised machinery for wage determination;
(c) collective agreements between employers and workers; or
(d) a combination of various means.
1. Where such action will assist in giving effect to the provisions of this Convention measures shall be taken to promote objective appraisal of jobs on the basis of work to be performed.
2. The methods to be followed in this appraisal may be decided upon by the authorities responsible for the determination of rates of remuneration, or, where such rates determined by collective agreements, by the parties thereto.
3. Differential rates between workers which correspond, without regard to sex, to differences, as determined by such objective appraisal, in the work to be performed shall not be considered as being contrary to the principle of equal remuneration for men and women workers for work of equal value.
Extract from: Convention 111
Extract from: Convention 111
1. For the purpose of this Convention the term "discrimination" includes-
(a) any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin, which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation;
(b) such other distinction, exclusion or preference which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation as may be determined by the Member concerned after consultation with representative employers'and workers'organisations, where such exist, and with other appropiate bodies.
2. Any distinction, exclusion or preference in respect of a particular job based on the inherent requirements thereof shall not be deemed to be discrimination.
3. For the purpose of this Convention the terms "employment" and "occupation" include access to vocational training, access to employment and to particular occupations, and terms and conditions of employment.
Each Member for which this Convention is in force undertakes to declare and pursue a national policy designed to promote, by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of employment and occupation, with a view to eliminating any discrimination in respect thereof.
Each Member for which this Convention is in force undertakes, by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice-
(a) to seek the co-operation of employers' and workers' organisations and other appropriate bodies in promoting the acceptance and observance of this policy;
(b) to enact such legislation and to promote such educational programmes as may be calculated to secure the acceptance and observance of the policy;
(c) to repeal any statutory provisions and modify any administrative instructions or practices which are inconsistent with the policy;
(d) to pursue the policy in respect of employment under the direct control of a national authority;
(e) to ensure observance of the policy in the activities of vocational guidance, vocational training and placement services under the direction of a national authority;
(f) to indicate in its annual reports on the application of the Convention the action taken in pursuance of the policy and the results secured by such action.
Extract from: Trade Union Textile-Garment, Board of Directors
Extract from: Trade Union Textile-Garment, Board of Directors
15th Trade Union Conference of the Trade Union Textile-Garment
from 5 - 9 October 1986 in Aachen.
The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference are requested to consider the following for decision:
- The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference welcome the agreement reached in Geneva on the extension of the Multi-Fibre-Arrangement.
- The conclusion of the 4th Multi-Fibre Arrangement fulfilled a vital demand made by the Textile-Garment Trade Union, following a corresponding provision for the international textile and garment trade. Moreover, all efforts to dismiss the present framework agreement as temporary, were rejected.
- For a five year period, the conditions of the extension protocol ensure for the European textile and garment industry certain trade protective measures against lowprice imports from industrial threshold, developing and state-trading countries. This alone was particularly important as the competitive advantages of these countries rely almost exclusively on unsocial and inhumane working conditions as well as on a non-competitive practice of subsidization.
- The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference welcome the fact that their demands have again been realized in which import quotas are to be differentiated between real developing countries on the one hand and already industrialized countries on the other hand, particularly as threshold countries could if necessary be called "developing countries" due to their extremely unfair distribution of income.
- In view of a rather low increase in the demand for textiles and garments in the European Community, new textile and garment suppliers only have a real chance to sell their products if this is made chargeable to the existing quotas for industrialized major supplier countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong or Brazil. The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference therefore deeply regret that the present extension protocol does not reduce the import quotas for these main supplier countries.
- The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference also criticise that the present extension protocol does not contain any concrete statement regarding an opening of the market of industrialized threshold and state-trading countries. Although the extension protocol mentions uncompetitive, illegal copying of samples and designs, practical consequences are not mentioned. The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference therefore request the EC Commission to raise the question of market openings as well as sample theft in the forthcoming bilateral negotiations. Should no binding commitments materialize, then future EC import quotas must be made even more restrictive.
- In order to ensure that the expansion of trade really leads to the social development of the population in Third World countries, these countries must be obliged to observe the social minimal norms of the International Labour Organisation as well as trade union laws. The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference criticise sharply that, despite consent obtained beforehand, the present extension protocol does not include definite provisions regarding a social clause. As in the 3rd Multi-Fibre Arrangement, the aim of trade expansion as stipulated here should be the promotion of economic and social development in developing countries. This reference alone is, however, insufficient. The delegates of the 15th Trade Union Conference therefore request the EC Commission to firmly insist upon a realizable social clause, along the lines of ILO minimum norms, in the forthcoming bilateral agreements. Above all, this should ensure the unhindered work of free and independent trade unions.
- The EC Commission is requested to use the 4th Multi-Fibre Arrangement as a basis in the forthcoming bilateral negotiations to firmly represent the social and employment interests of the workers in EC member countries.
Extract from a statement by the European Trade Union Committee Textile, Garment and Leather on the topic "Social Clauses", dated 13 February 1989
Policy in the field of trade and development cooperation must aim at both economic and social progress in developing as well as developed countries. Both aims have to be pursued simultaneously.
On the one hand, this should ensure equal opportunities for developing countries entering the common market without punishing those who already apply social minimum norms. On the other hand, this should promote social development in the framework of economic progress.
The aim of these minimum norms, which must be incorporated in both GATT and WTA are:
To support workers in developing countries in their efforts to secure a part of the social and economic benefits of industrialization.
To enable governments and trade unions to influence countries which do not implement the norms, so that it can be ensured that workers indeed obtain a more appropriate share of the advantages of industrialization.
Crucial minimum norms are:
Equality of opportunity and equal treatment in the fields of employment and profession, in order to abolish discrimination due to race, colour, sex, religion, ethnic or social origin.
The right to allow free and independent trade unions, and the obligation not to hinder their activities (freedom of association).
Prohibition of child labour and fixation of the minimum employment age to 14 years.
Observance of health care regulations.
Guarantee of security regulations at work.
Limitation of working hours to a general maximum of 48 hours per week.
Guaranteed minimum wages which ensure living conditions fit for human beings.
The legal basis of these minimum norms is constituted by the respective ILO agreements which have come into force after ratification by the required minimum number of member countries. Control and implementation of these regulations are therefore dependent on the cooperation of the ILO.
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