[page-number of print ed.: 103



Alexander E., et al., Informal Sector Businesses in Four Botswana Communities, Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone, 1983.

Government of Botswana, Report of the Presidential Commission on Economic Opportunities, 1982.

Government of Botswana, National Development Plan 7, 1991-97, 1991.

Government of Botswana, ‘Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises Task Force Report’, 1998.

Government of Botswana ‘Policy on Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises in Botswana’, 1999.

Somolekae, G., Proceedings of a National Seminar on the Informal Sector and Small-Scale Enterprise Development in Botswana, University of Botswana, 1989.

South Africa

Economic Research Unit, University of Natal, Durban, and the Black Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Support Facility, The characteristics and Support Needs of Black Small and Micro-enterprise in KwaZulu-Natal (No date).

Martins, J.H., Profile Study of Spaza Retailers in Tembisa, Bureau of Market Research, University of South Africa, Research Report No. 249 (1998).

[page-number of print ed.: 104

Moore, G. and Davie, E., Laws Affecting Small Business: Licensing, Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung 1997.

National African Federated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NAFCOC)j Democratization and Growth of the South African Economy: Barriers to Entry. 1995.

Ntsika Enterprise Promotion Agency, National Small Business Regulatory Review: Discussion Paper, 1999.

Ntsika Enterprise Promotion Agency, The State of Small Business in South Africa, 1997.

Riley, T. A., Characteristics of and Constraints Facing Black Businesses in South Africa: Survey Results, World Bank Discussion Paper, 1993.

Rogerson, C., South Africa's Micro-enterprise Economy: a Policy Focused Review, in Hirschowitz, R. and Orkin, M. (eds.), Micro-enterprise Development in South Africa, 1994,

Rogerson, C., South Africa's Informal Economy: Past, Present and Future, in Preston-Whyte, E. and Rogerson, C. (eds), South Africa's Informal Economy 1991.

Sheets, D., and Bukula, S., Policy, Regulatory and Administrative (PRA) Constraints Study, Unpublished Report Prepared for VITA/MSP, 1997.

South Africa, Republic of, White Paper on National Strategy for the Development and Promotion of Small Business in South Africa, Government Gazette, Vol. 357 No. 16317, Cape Town, 1995.

[page-number of print ed.: 105


Government of Zambia National Poverty Action Plan, 1998.

L.B. Imboela, An Investigation of the Socio-economic charac-teristics of the Tuntemba Operators and their role in household survival strategies in Zambia, 1997.

Lawrence Mukuka, A needs assessment of the urban informal sector, Report, 1999.

Martin Swana Tolosi, Masiye Nawiko, Informal Sector Business Activities in Lusaka Urban District under the Structural Adjustment Programme, Report, 1997.

[page-number of print ed.: 106

SEPAC Publications

A Regional Network Approach to Fostering Small Business Promotion in SADC Countries. Proceedings of the Third SEPAC Conference


SME Policies and Policy Formulation in SADC Countries. Papers Presented to the Workshop of the SEPAC Working Group "Policy Issues"


Chambers of Commerce and Industry as Small Business Service Providers - Opportunities and Challenges. Papers Presented to the Workshop of the SEPAC Working Group "Entrepreneurship Development and Training"


Appropriate Technology for Small and Medium Enterprises in SADC Countries. Papers Presented to the Workshop of the SEPAC Working Group "Information, Technology and Technology Transfer"


Review of Business Laws in Southern Africa.
Report prepared for the SEPAC Working Group „Policy Issues"


Copies can be ordered from Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Botswana Office

[page-number of print ed.: cover backside

Review of Business Licensing Laws of Southern Africa

The significance of licensing regulations is often overlooked in the literature on SMME development. This is surprising because the seven country reports summarised in this book suggest that licensing and related issues have the potential to be highly controversial.

In Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, licensing regulations were regarded as oppressive and discriminatory to SMMEs until they were largely removed in the early 1990s. In Botswana, where some 70-75 % of the country’s micro and small businesses are currently operating unlawfully from residential plots, an independent SMME Task Force has recently recommended that licensing and zoning laws should be radically reformed. In Tanzania, the licensing system is associated with bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption: approximately 70% of SMMEs currently operate in disregard of the licensing rules. In Zambia, the enforcement of licensing laws by local authorities against street traders has become highly politicised and the cause of conflict between central and local government.

This book reviews the policy issues associated with licensing, zoning and deregulation in seven countries of Southern Africa. Mauritius is the only country in which licensing laws appear to have generated little debate, perhaps because licensing policy in Mauritius is dictated by the need to make optimum use of land and other resources on a small island.

ISBN 99912-916-7-9

© Friedrich Ebert Stiftung | technical support | net edition fes-library | November 2000

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